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How Airplane Works
If you have ever flown on an Airplane you know that it’s an enormous size, amazing Machine. A typical 747 can carry more than 500 passengers and weighs around 800,000 pounds when takeoff? Yet it rolls down the runway at a speed of 290 Km/H and, as though by magic lifts itself into air & can travel up to 13000km without stopping. Incredible isn’t it?
But what’s more interesting is how?
Today we are going to learn how an airplane flies in a very simple way by going through
The Aerodynamics of an Airplane
Main Parts of an Airplane &
Controlling the Airplane.
1. Aero Dynamics of an Airplane
The four Aerodynamics of an airplane are Drag, Thrust, Weight and Lift.
Drag, also called air resistance, refers to the forces acting opposite to the relative motion of any object moving with respect to a surrounding fluid. The energy as object takes to push through surrounding fluid creates Drag.
You may have noticed an excellent example of drag reduction in Track Cycling. The cyclist must push through the mass of air in front but, a streamlined sitting posture that cuts through the air more smoothly--enables a cyclist to travel much faster, with less effort.
The Airplane always retracts its landing gear and nose gear into the body of the Plane after takeoff to reduce drag.
Thrust counters drag. It is a mechanical force that keeps the Airplane moving in the air. Thrust is generated by Propellers, Jet engines or Rockets. The Compressor inside the Jet Engine takes the Air and compresses it & after processing from Combustion Chamber and Turbine the gas is blown out through the exhaust nozzle.
Here the Newton’s third law of motion is applied where the gas is pushed backward and the Engine is pushed forward.
Weight it is the Airplane body, passenger and luggage weight in total.
Lift Overcomes the weight and holds the airplane in the Air. Lift is created mostly by Wings to keep the plane aloft.
So to keep the Airplane moving fly straight and in level, this must be true
Drag = Thrust & Weight = Lift which mean no net force acting upon an Airplane
2. Parts of an Airplane
The basic parts of an Airplane are
2. Horizontal Stabilizer
3. Vertical Stabilizer
Wing is the most important part of an airplane since it produces lift that allows a plane to fly. A Wing produces lift because of its slightly inclined & special shape which is called an airfoil.
This special shape is designed to deflect the air at the bottom of the wing due to which more air strikes at the bottom & less air at the top of the wing. As Airplane rolls down the runway, higher pressure & more upward force produces below the wing & lower pressure & lesser downward force above the wing. The net result is lifting of an airplane.
Stabilizer Stability in an airplane is a tendency to return to its initial state after a disturbance from that state.
Horizontal Stabilizer performs this function when the disturbance force causes the nose of an airplane to move up or down. Such movement is called Pitch.
Vertical Stabilizer provides stability for a disturbance in yaw. Yaw is side to side motion of the nose.
3. Controlling the Airplane
So what are the components in an airplane which controls the flight, direction, height and maintains equilibrium?
It’s Elevator, Rudder & Aileron.
With left Aileron in downwards direction, the lift will increase; whereas at the same time the aileron of the right wing is in upward position therefore lift on the right wing is decreased. The result will roll the aircraft to the Right. If Pilot reverses the Aileron deflection the Right wing will lift up and airplane will roll to the Left.
NEXT TIME YOU TRAVEL IN AN AIRPLANE YOU KNOW HOW IT WORKS.